Hyperpigmentation, freckles, melasma, sunspots

Pigmented skin lesions include sunspots, freckles and melasma. They are benign changes in the colour of skin which occur due to different reasons at a specific age. At the Derma-Act clinics, the successful elimination of pigmented skin lesions takes place through the administration of the innovative PicoSure® laser – specifically designed for treatment of different skin problems.

What are sunspots?

Also known as age spots, they occur on the skin separately or in groups and constitute flat brown, grey or black lesions which are usually larger than freckles. The main cause of the occurrence of the spots is excessive exposure to sunlight without proper protection. When the skin is not protected against ultraviolet rays, the rate of production of melanin increases and causes hyperproduction of melanin in certain areas where the spots occur later. Pale skin is strongly predisposed to the formation of sunspots. Other common factors for their occurrence are visits to solariums or previous skin burns.

Why do skin spots occur?

Usually, the spots occur at an older age as a result of aging and the natural damage of cells, but recently an increased prevalence of their occurrence in younger people is observed because of excessive exposure to sunlight or hereditary predisposition. The body areas where spots are formed, are usually the face, breasts, arms and back. Spots do not become pale over time; instead, they increase in number and size and exacerbate following exposure to sunlight. Although they are harmless, the majority of people consider sunspots an aesthetic problem, particularly when occurring in groups or highly pigmented. In some cases, the changes in the clinical appearance of spots require further research. In the presence of any of the following characteristics, a dermatological examination should be scheduled to rule out the possibility of pre-cancer or cancer lesions:

  • Fast increase of the lesion size;
  • Unusual combination of colours;
  • Very dark colour;
  • Irregular borders;
  • Itching or hypersensitivity;
  • Irritation or bleeding;

What are freckles?

Freckles occur in people who are genetically predisposed and result from a benign mutation in the MC1R gene regulating melanin. Their diameters are less than 5 mm and the sites of freckle occurrence have a larger concentration of melanin in the cells. Melanin acts as a natural inhibitor of sunlight and protects the skin by preventing the penetration of ultraviolet rays to deeper layers.

Spots should not be mistaken for freckles since the two pigmented lesions differ significantly from one another in relation to their clinical appearance. Particularly, unlike spots, freckles are light lesions, usually brown on yellow, have blurred borders and smaller sizes.

When do freckles appear?

Freckles on the face are usually are seen after the age of 2 years. Even babies who carry the MC1R gene are not born with freckles. Sunlight is what causes their occurrence. This explains why freckles become more obvious over the years and especially in summer months. Freckles in adulthood can also become pale. Besides, the more naturally blonde or red the individual's hair is and the paler their skin, the more freckles are visible.

Treatment with PicoSure®

The high effectiveness of the PicoSure® laser is due to selective photothermolysis, thanks to which its energy is directed and acts at the bottom of a lesion, i.e. in areas where a higher concentration of melanin is seen. The extremely short pulse of beam of PicoSure® is absorbed by melanin, turns to acoustic waves and destroys pigmented particles to very fine remains. They are absorbed by macrophages and excreted from the organism in a natural manner.

Unlike traditional treatment options for pigmented lesions such as cryosurgery, diathermy, chemical peeling or older laser technologies, the updated mechanism of PicoSure® produces conditions for optimal results without damage of surrounding tissues and provides:

A safe, precise and focused effect

Maximal effectiveness

Natural result

No recovery period

No interruption of daily work rhythm is required

Successful treatment with only a few sessions

Treatment of pigmented lesions with PicoSure® guarantees optimal results with only a few sessions. The exact number of sessions required for a full aesthetic recovery is determined by the location and depth of a lesion. Superficial spots require a smaller number of sessions than deeper spots. Spots become "pale" and discoloured gradually, and in some cases, the formation of a scab which falls off about a week after the procedure is also possible. The average number of sessions is 2-4 at a 2-4-week interval.

Before treatment with PicoSure®, we recommend two weeks without use of bronzer creams and exposure to sunlight. After it, the application of daily sun-protection product with a high factor is required.

Other therapies for treatment of pigmentation.

Chemical peeling Ph M.E.L.A.

Peeling causes chemical exfoliation, whose depth depends on the used acid, its concentration, way of administration and the patient’s skin condition.

The M.E.L.A. formula is a favourable solution to cope with hyperpigmentation. The treatment helps decrease accumulation of epidermal melanin. The formula effectively inhibits the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase, while stimulating epidermal differentiation and as a result of this accelerating epidermal cell renewal removing the already formed melanin pigment. Thanks to the innovative highly effective manner of action, effective, visible results with a minimal risk are achieved.

Treatment with Palomar Max G

The procedure is applicable to patients who seek to decrease signs of skin aging, remove rosacea, redness and hyperpigmentation. The treatment produces its effect as a light beam is absorbed selectively by specific substances called chromophores, such as melanin in pigmented spots.


Frequently Asked Questions

Some people have genetic predisposition to development of solar lentigo, but if an adequate protection is applied, damages can be prevented.
No, freckles are hereditary. If you have freckles, then most likely some of your parents also has freckles and they are not associated with the fact that you did not protect your skin from the sun.
The presence of freckles means that the skin type is sensitive to ultraviolet rays. Hence, if you have freckles, you should wear a sun-protection cream to avoid skin damage and early aging.
The treatment does not a require recovery period and you can resume your daily routine immediately after the procedure. However, you should avoid exposure to sunlight both before and after treatment, and always use a sun-protection cream with a high protection factor.

Before and After